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List of netowrking, wireless, broadband, satellite, telephony, general computing and other technical terms used throughout the site.
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Term Description
TC-PAM TC-PAM (Trellis Coded Pulse Amplitude Modulation) is the modulation format that is used in both HDSL2 and SHDSL, and provides robust performance over a variety of loop conditions.

SHDSL uses TC-PAM to provide a rate/reach adaptive capability, offering enhanced performance (increased rate or reach) and improved spectral compatibility with ADSL when compared to today's 2B1Q SDSL offerings. Compared to HDSL2, SHDSL offers lower power consumption through the use of lower-power, intelligently shaped transmit waveforms.
TCP/IP TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the suite of communications protocols (the main ones being TCP and IP) used to connect hosts on the Internet.

TCP/IP is used by the Internet, making it the de facto most widely spread standard for transmitting data over networks. TCP and IP were developed by a DOD (Department of Defense) research project to connect a number different networks designed by different vendors into a network of networks (the Internet).
Tcp1323Opts Tcp1323Opts - TCP Large Window support ( Windows 98 and later ). Used when an application requests a Winsock socket to use buffer sizes greater than 64KB. In previous implementations the TCP window size was limited to 64KB, this limit is raised to 2**30 through the use of TCP large window support as defined in [RFC1323] and implemented in Winsock 2. Tcp1323Opts also controls Timestamps.
TDM TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) is a type of multiplexing that combines data streams by assigning each stream a different time slot in a set. TDM repeatedly transmits a fixed sequence of time slots over a single transmission channel.

See also: WDM, FDM.
TDMA TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) is a wireless technology using TDM (time-division multiplexing). TDMA is used by the GSM digital cellular system. It works by dividing a frequency into multiple time slots, and then allocating them to multiple calls. This way, a single frequency can support multiple data channels simultaneously.
TELCO Telephone Company
tethering tethering refers to using an internet-capable mobile phone as a modem to share its internet access with other devices, such as laptops and PCs. This internet sharing can be accomplished over Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or by physical connection using a cable.

In the case of tethering over Wi-Fi, the mobile phone acts as a portable router and the feature is aslo called a mobile hotspot.

Many modern mobile phones, including Windows Phone 7 (from version 7.5 Mango), Android (from version 2.2 Froyo), and iOS (4.3 or higher) offer tethered Intnernet access. The feature is sometimes disabled, or requires extra monthly fees by operators to reduce strain on their networks.
TFTP TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) is a simplified version of FTP that uses UDP, rather than TCP for data transport. It is easier to implement than FTP, but it is insecure (no authentication), lacks directory services, and UDP is not a reliable transport protocol.

TFTP is intended for use with small file transfers, often used to allow diskless devices to boot over the network, or for firmware transfers.
throughput Throughput (or transfer rate) in data transmission is the amount of data moved successfully from one place to another in a given time period.

For data networks, throughput is usually measured in number of bits per second (bps) that are transmitted, also quoted as Kilobits per second (Kbps) or Megabits per second (Mbps).
Timestamps Timestamps is defined in TCP Options ( RFC 1323 ) and used for two distinct mechanisms: RTTM (Round Trip Time Measurement) and PAWS (Protection Against Wrapped Sequences).

The disadvantage of using Timestamps is it adds 12 bytes to the 20 byte TCP header.

TKIP TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) is an enhancement to WEP security, part of a draft standard 802.11i.

TKIP enhances WEP security by adding functions for remixing keys per packet, making it more resistant to attacks involving key reuse (the main WEP weakness).

TKIP utilizes RC4 stream cipher with 128-bit keys for encryption and 64-bit keys for authentication.
topology The shape of a local-area network (LAN) or other communications system (either physical or logical).

The principal network topologies are listed below:

bus topology: (a.k.a. linear topology) All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks.
star topology: All devices are connected to a central hub(switch). Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub.
ring topology: All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each node is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.
mesh topology: A network topology in which there are at least two nodes with multiple paths between them.
hybrid topology: A combination of any two or more network topologies. For example, a bus-star hybrid network consists of a high-bandwidth bus (the backbone), which connects a collections of slower-bandwidth star segments.
tree topology: a hybrid topology that combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured nodes connected to a linear bus backbone cable.
TR-069 TR-069 (Technical Report 069) is a Broadband Forum technical specification entitled "CPE WAN Management Protocol" (CWMP). It defines an application layer protocol for remote management of end-user devices (e.g. modems, routers, gateways, set-top boxes, VoIP phones).

TR-069 provides the communication between customer-premises equipment (CPE) and Auto Configuration Servers (ACS). It includes auto configuration, dynamic service activation, firmware updates/version management, status and performance control, diagnostics, logs, etc. It is a platform that works through the Internet, and regardless of the device(s) manufacturer.
traceroute traceroute is a utility that records the route between your computer and a destination computer on the Internet. It measures the time it takes to reach each node (specific gateway computer at each hop) needed to make the connection.

Traceroute is a handy tool both for understanding where problems are in the network (packet loss, high latency) and for getting a detailed sense of the network itself. The traceroute utility sends 3 ICMP packets to each node, increasing the "time to live" value of packets and seeing how far they get until they reach the given destination; thus, a trail of hosts passed through and time to them is built up.

The traceroute utility comes included with most current operating systems as part of the TCP/IP package. In Windows, traceroute can be used from the Command Prompt, by typing:

transponder transponder is the portion of a communications satellite that acts as a receiver, amplifier, and retransmitter for the signals communicated up to and down from the satellite.
trojan trojan (a.k.a trojan horse) - a program that pretends to be something else. Usually a piece of malicious code contained in another seemingly harmless program in such a way that it can get control and/or damage your PC. It could erase some files (even your entire hard disk) and/or give other people full access to your system... Sounds ridiculous? It happens every single day to computer users near you.

According to legend (Homer's Iliad), the Greeks won the Trojan war by hiding warriors in a huge, hollow wooden horse, who later opened the gates and helped them get into the fortified city of Troy. This a symbolic explanation of what a computer trojan horse is: it can open your PC to anyone, even if no immediate damage is done.

Note: In a much more limited use the term was also used for counter-measures, such as a program for cleaning a virus.
TTL TTL (Time To Live) is a value set in the header of outgoing IP packets. TTL determines the maximum amount of time (in seconds) an IP packet can live, or the number of routers an IP packet may pass through before being discarded (whichever is lower).
tunneling Tunneling refers to the ability to encapsulate packets of data formatted for one network protocol (or a private secure network) in packets used by another protocol (or a public network). Tunneling allows the use of the (public) Internet to transfer data on behalf of a private network. See also: VPN, PPTP.

Note that tunneling and VPN is not intended as a substitute for data encryption by itself. For a higher security level strong encryption should be used within the VPN.
TurboQAM TurboQAM is a Broadcom 802.11 wireless technology that makes it possible for the 2.4GHz band with 40MHz channels to achieve a maximum transfer rate of 200 Mbps per data stream, instead of the standard 150 Mbps. This is achieved by using QAM-256, instead of the standard QAM-64 used until now by 802.11n wireless networks.

TurboQAM requires 40MHz channels and clients that support QAM-256. Current routers revert back to 20MHz channels when there is interference from another radio that is within two channels of them.
twisted pair Two single core copper wires twisted around ach other to reduce crosstalk or electromagnetic induction. Twisted pair is usually installed in two or more pairs, all within a single cable. For some locations, twisted pair is enclosed in a shield that functions as a ground, and is known as shielded twisted pair (STP). Ordinary wire to the home is unshielded twisted pair (UTP).
Term Description
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