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What is the actual real-life speed of wireless networks ?

There are many wireless standards in use today, and newer technologies can bond multiple channels/frequencies together to achieve higher throughput.

First, keep in mind that in data communications, speed is measured in kilobits (or megabits) per second, designated as kbps, or Mbps. You can check our bits/bytes conversion calculator for reference.

Below is a breakdown of the various 802.11 WiFi standards and their corresponding maximum speeds. Theoretical wireless speeds (combined upstream and downstream) are as follows:
802.11b - 11 Mbps (2.4GHz)
802.11a - 54 Mbps (5 GHz)
802.11g - 54 Mbps (2.4GHz)
802.11n - 600 Mbps (2.4GHz and 5 GHz) - 150Mbps typical for network adapters, 300Mbps, 450Mbps, and 600Mbps speeds when bonding channels with some routers
802.11ac - 1300+Mbps (5 GHz) - newer standard that uses wider channels, QAM and spatial streams for higher throughput

Actual wireless speeds vary significantly from the above theoretical maximum speeds due to:
distance - distance from the access point, as well as any physical obstructions, such as walls, signal-blocking or reflecting materials affect signal propagation and reduce speed
interference - other wireless networks and devices in the same frequency in the same area affect performance
shared bandwidth - available bandwidth is shared between all users on the same wireless network.

In addition, net IP layer throughput of WiFi is typically 60% of the air link rate due to WiFi being half-duplex with ACKs, and being CSMA/CA. The number of simultaneous connections, and even the type of wireless security can affect and slow down some older routers with inadequate processors/memory.

Below is a breakdown of actual real-life average speeds you can expect from wireless routers within a reasonable distance, with low interference and small number of simultaneous clients:
802.11b - 2-3 Mbps downstream, up to 5-6 Mbps with some vendor-specific extensions.
802.11g - ~20 Mbps downstream
802.11n - 40-50 Mbps typical, varying greatly depending on configuration, whether it is mixed or N-only network, the number of bonded channels, etc. Specifying a channel, and using 40MHz channels can help achieve 70-80Mbps with some newer routers. Up to 100 Mbps achievable with more expensive commercial equipment with 8x8 arrays, gigabit ports, etc.
802.11ac - 70-100+ Mbps typical, higher speeds possible over short distances without many obstacles, with newer generation 802.11ac routers, and client adapters capable of multiple streams.


  User Reviews/Comments:
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by j7n - 2014-03-22 03:19
Good article. Would be nice to clarify if "downstream" means access point to station. If so, is there a ratio or reserved bandwidth for the opposite direction?
by anonymous - 2014-03-31 03:51
small number of simultaneous clients ? But we need to know how many users ?
by Philip - 2014-03-31 07:20
Yes, downstream refers to traffic from the access point to clients. Reserving bandidth for upstream traffic (client to ap) would depend on the implementation/ap firmware/QoS/software/client drivers.

The number of simultaneous clients is mentioned because the available throughput is shared between all clients, i.e. 4 clients will each be able to only get 1/4 of the speed. With a larger number of simultaneous clients, they also compete for a small portion of the 2.4GHz spectrum, causing more interference. Residential access points can't handle much more than 10-15 active simultaneous clients. Some commercial aps can reach 100 clients.
by Peter - 2015-01-25 23:23
Sorry to quibble, but i'm getting 126Mbps on my 802.11ac wifi right now. Linksys WRT1900AC talking to a MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Late 2013). Short distance, but there are other devices around.
by Manimaker - 2015-02-01 04:51
I am getting 250MB/s with Asus ac1750 with about 6 other wireless networks and with just 2-3 other android devices
by Wojtaszek - 2015-02-01 15:51
I have 802.11n and 160Mbps (Fritzbox 7390).
by anonymous - 2015-02-10 18:00
250MB/s ? you need to get your facts right mate.
by anonymous - 2015-02-28 06:57
I am using an ASUS RT-AC87U with a generic Broadcom based AC Wireless card on an ASUS laptop. With this configuration I can at times see speeds at around 20 MB/s, but most of the time I'm in the range from 12 MB/s to 16 MB/s.

So for the person claiming speeds at 250 MB/s, I guess it's a typo. But if you can find a 3x3 or 4x4 AC network card, I guess you could see 250 Mbps speeds.
by anonymous - 2015-03-13 16:08
Wireless throughput maxed to 36 MB/s, average 30 MB/s on Asus AC87U sending / AC68U receiving, attached to NAS (bridge mode). AC Adapter on PC is Asus AC 56. File size appr. 10 Gb.
by anonymous - 2015-03-25 18:15
The router/wireless card combo is critical to maximum performance. I'm using the AC86U and the pce-AC68. I'm seeing speeds (albeit over only 10feet) of 65MBps (not Mbps) straight out of the box. The AC87 firmware is probably not optimized yet as some reviews seem to find it slower than the AC68. The tri-band pci adapter makes a huge diffference.
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